Intracardiac electrical stimulation
To determine the susceptibility to pacing-induced arrhythmias and conduction property by simultaneous recording of surface ECG and intracardiac electrograms.
Optical imaging of the perfused heart to determine the activation pattern visually.
Left: normal activation pattern
Right: an ectopic firing near the lower right atrium lead to a premature p'-wave on ECG
Live cell imaging
Confocal imaging of freshly isolated cardiomyocytes with fluorescent indicators.
Red arrow points to the spontaneous Ca2+ release event (Ca2+ wave)
AAV-mediated gene transfer
Modify cardiomyocyte gene expression using a variety of AAV9 vectors.
"Flox-stop-shRNA" system to induce NLRP3 knockdown in cardiomyocyte specifically (Yao et al. Circulation. 2018)